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GRE写作Argument常见逻辑错误总结

2019-07-11编辑 : 津桥国际学院
在GRE写作argument部分,题目中常常设置了一些推论或者论据方面的漏洞,使其有懈可击。GRE写作要求考生在写作的过程中发现这些逻辑问题,对这些逻辑问题进行体系化的驳斥。下面津桥老师就带大家聊接一下,GRE写作中常见的两种逻辑错误类型,大家要仔细体会这些错误类型,并且研究给出的范例中相关的语言表达哦!

  在GRE写作argument部分,题目中常常设置了一些推论或者论据方面的漏洞,使其有懈可击。GRE写作要求考生在写作的过程中发现这些逻辑问题,对这些逻辑问题进行体系化的驳斥。下面津桥老师就带大家聊接一下,GRE写作中常见的两种逻辑错误类型,大家要仔细体会这些错误类型,并且研究给出的范例中相关的语言表达哦!

  一, 经不起推敲的类推

  在GRE的Argument中可能出现一个事物(如城市,学校或公司)对另一事物进行类推的情况。这就意味着,作者认为两件事物因为在某些方面相似,那么它们在其他所有方面就一定都相似。除非文章中提供充分证据支持这种假设,否则其论述就可以受到质疑。下面的例子中有两处经不起推敲的类推:

  【题目】

  The following appeared in a memo from the manager of Cutters, a hair salon located in suburban Apton:

  “...In order to boost Cutters’ sagging profits we should relocate out hair salon from its current suburban--mall location to downtown Apton. After all, Hair-Dooz, out chielf competitor at the mall, has relocated downtown and prospering in its new location. ....Besides , in neighboring Brainard the most successful hair salon is located in that city’s downtown district. By emulating these two successful salon we’ll surely succeed as well. ”

  【范文】

  The argument relies on what might be a false analogy between Cutters and the Brainard and Hair-Dooz salons, In order for the last two salons to serve as models that Cutters should emulate, the manager must assume that all relevant circumstances involving the business are essentially the same. However, this assumption is unwarranted. For example, the argument overlooks the possibility that the Hair-Dooz move was motivated by other concerns besides profitability. Perhaps the owner of Hair-Dooz relocated the salon to cater to a certain clientele that Cutters would not attract. As for the Brainard salon, perhaps the demographic trends in Brainard are quite different than those in Apton, and therefore Cutters is likely to fail in downtown even though the other salon prospers in downtown Bramard. Or, perhaps the Brainard salon thrives only because it is long-established in its current downtown location, while Cutters would flounder without an immediate customer base in downtown Apton.

  【模板】

  The argument relies on what might be a false analogy between ...........and ........... , In order for ......... to serve as models that ............ should emulate, the................... must assume that all relevant circumstances involving the ........ are essentially the same. However, this assumption is unwarranted. For example, the argument overlooks the possibility that ........ Perhaps........

  二,将因果关系与单纯的关联关系或者时间关系混淆起来

  很多Argument的论述基于这样的思路:一件事情的发生是由另一件事情引起的。这种因果关系的推理也许是基于以下的原因:

  两件事的发生有明显联系(两件事情总是一起出现)。

  两件事情的发生在时间上有关系(一件事出现在另一件事情之后)。

  两件事情很明显的相关性或时间的关联有可能意味着两者之间有因果关系,但仅此一点并不足以 ** 证这种因果关系的存在。除非Argument提到并且排除其他可能的、并且合乎情理的原因,否则其论处就存在漏洞。下面的例子中含有上述两种情况:

  【题目】

  The following appeared in the editorial section of newspaper.

  “Many states have enacted law prohibiting environmental emissions nitrocarbon byproducts, on the basis that these byproducts have been shown to cause Urkin’s Disease in humans. These laws have clearly been effective in preventing the disease. After all, in every state that has enacted such a law the incidence of Urkin’s disease is lower than in any state that has not enacted a similar law...”

  【范文】

  The argument concludes based on a known correlation between laws prohibiting certain emissions and the low incidence of Uridn's Disease that the latter is attributable, at least partly, to the former. Yet the correlation alone amounts to scant evidence of the claimed cause-and-effect relationship .Perhaps Urkin's disease can be caused by other factors as well, which are absent in these particular states but present in all others. Moreover, the argument overlooks the fact that it is the level of compliance with a law, not its enactment, that determines its effectiveness. The editorial's author has not accounted for the possibility that the laws prohibiting the emissions were never enforced or complied with, and that the emissions have continued unabated. If this is the case, then the conclusion that the laws are effective in preventing Urkin's Disease would lack w merit whatsoever.

  【模板】

  The argument concludes based on a known correlation between ............................ and ............................. that the latter is attributable, at least partly, to the former. Yet the correlation alone amounts to scant evidence of the claimed cause-and-effect relationship .Perhaps ..................can be caused by other factors as well, which are absent in .............. but present................ Moreover, the argument overlooks the fact that it is the .........................., not its ....................., that determines its effectiveness. The editorial's author has not accounted for the possibility that ....................................., and that .................................... If this is the case, then the conclusion that.......................................would lack w merit whatsoever.

  自从2011年GRE改革以来,argument的部分题库就已经固定,一共177道题目。大家在平时备考GRE的过程中,一定要仔细辨析这些真题。首先体会推理过程,列出提纲,再使用模板句反复套用,使得语言部分变得熟练。另外大家在备考中要努力练习打字速度,一些拼写方面的问题也要充分关注。祝大家在GRE作文考试中取得好成绩!

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