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托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤有哪些?

2019-08-13编辑 : 津桥国际学院

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24年教龄

托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤是什么?这类题型在托福阅读每篇13-14题的题型设置中可以占据3-6题,由此可见其重要性。下面就和津桥国际小编一起来详细了解下托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤是什么。

  托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤是什么?这类题型在托福阅读每篇13-14题的题型设置中可以占据3-6题,由此可见其重要性。下面就和津桥国际小编一起来详细了解下托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤是什么。

  我们从托福官方指南出发,可以发现其对于事实信息题的考察提示中的解析是让解题人在文章中识别已经明确给出的特定信息。其常见的题干形式有:

  1) According to the paragraph, which of the following is true of X?

  2) The author’s description of X mentions which of the following?

  3) According to the paragraph, X occurred because . . .

  4) According to the paragraph, X did Y because . . .

  5) According to the paragraph, why did X do Y?

  这个时候可能有同学会打断说:“老师,既然考察的信息都已经明确给出了,那不是很简单吗?看完文章当中的句子,再去选项里面找一样的不就解决了吗?”

  在揭晓答案以前,不知道同学们在做题的时候有没有碰到过在给出的段落中找不到题干所问的内容,又或者发现段落中有很多地方出现了题干中所问的信息的情况。这时出题人考察的就是我们的审题定位能力了,只有把定位信息找准确,才不会出现答题时选择了和题干无关的却又是文章中正确的信息,即答非所问的情况。

  在定位完成后考察的就是我们对于特定的一个句子或者几个句子的理解能力了,这其中需要我们能够正确提取句子主干从而理解句子的表达的核心内容,同时识别句子中逻辑,甚至有时需要我们能够理解句与句之间的逻辑,才能给题干问的问题找到一个答案。

  做完理解这步之后我们再去选项里面找寻和获取信息意思相符的选项。特别需要强调的是,我们看选项的时候一定要注意,找的是意思一致而不是和文章中用词相似的选项,正确的选项通常情况下都是做了同义替换的。所以同义替换的能力也是事实信息题考察的一个重点。

  简而言之,事实信息题解题思路分三步走,先定位,后理解,最后同义替换。

  接下来我们练习一个例题,看看大家是否可以像拥有火眼金睛的悟空看穿白骨精的变身那样识破事实信息题中的同义替换。

  Paragraph 1: Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil. (TPO5-1)

  According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soil?

  A)They absorb micronutrients unusually well.

  B)They require far less calcium than most plants do.

  C)They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state.

  D)They are typically crops raised for food.

  在同学们做完之后,我们一起来理理思路,并且巩固一下之前的解题策略。

  拿到题目之后,我们发现是常见的事实信息题的题干形式,问的是关于能够生长在serpentine soil(蛇纹岩)中的植物哪一点是对的。

  按照我们之前讲解的答题步骤,首先需要定位。

  在定位信息选取的时候,要注意我们可以优先选择数字或者是专有名词来快速定位,然后再判断定位是否和题干一致。在这个例题中,我们可以用serpentine soil这个专有名词来快速定位,在从段首往后阅读的速读过程中,我们发现在第五句里出现了serpentine soil(蛇纹岩),以及在这种环境中生长的植物的特点,所以定位准确。

  第二步,理解。

  通过对定位句的的理解,我们发现only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive是解题的关键。也就是只有能够忍受土壤中calcium(钙)含量低的植物才能在serpentine soil(蛇纹岩)中存活。这句话的表述的核心就是特定的植物可以在特定的环境中生存。

  第三步,同义替换。

  通过理解定位句之后我们再去看选项,找找看哪个选项描述的植物特点和蛇纹岩中植物一样,发现只有B选项:对于钙需求远比其他植物要少的植物和我们理解的意思是想符合的,只不过选项中描述的是对钙需求少,而原文是能忍受低的钙含量,“far less” 和““low levels of”进行了同义替换而已。

  至于其他选项:A错在原文没提及在蛇纹岩中的植物对于微量营养物的吸收情况;C错的和A一样,同样没提及在蛇纹岩中的植物对于氮的吸收信息;D表述的是种植植物的目的,而不是植物在特定环境中的特点,和题干无关。

  看到这里,希望对于同学们解答事实信息题能有所帮助。

  最后我们留一个问题给大家思考,假如说回原文定位的时候在好多处都发现和题干信息一致的地方,要怎么来处理呢?也就是我们所说的宏观事实信息题要怎么来解题呢?请看例题:

  Paragraph 4: By 1800 more than a thousand steam engines were in use in the British Isles, and Britain retained a virtual monopoly on steam engine production until the 1830s. Steam power did not merely spin cotton and roll iron; early in the new century, it also multiplied ten times over the amount of paper that a single worker could produce in a day. At the same time, operators of the first printing presses run by steam rather than by hand found it possible to produce a thousand pages in an hour rather than thirty. Steam also promised to eliminate a transportation problem not fully solved by either canal boats or turnpikes. Boats could carry heavy weights, but canals could not cross hilly terrain; turnpikes could cross the hills, but the roadbeds could not stand up under great weights. These problems needed still another solution, and the ingredients for it lay close at hand. In some industrial regions, heavily laden wagons, with flanged wheels, were being hauled by horses along metal rails; and the stationary steam engine was puffing in the factory and mine. Another generation passed before inventors succeeded in combining these ingredients, by putting the engine on wheels and the wheels on the rails, so as to provide a machine to take the place of the horse. Thus the railroad age sprang from what had already happened in the eighteenth century.

  According to paragraph 4, which of the following statements about steam engines is true?

  A) They were used for the production of paper but not for printing.

  B) By 1800, significant numbers of them were produced outside of Britain.

  C) They were used in factories before they were used to power trains.

  D) They were used in the construction of canals and turnpikes.

  以上就是托福阅读事实信息题解题步骤是什么的全部内容,希望对考生备考托福考试有一定的帮助,

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